Komunitariańska perspektywa przedsiębiorczości społecznej
Communitarian Perspectives on Social Enterprise

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Rory Ridley-Duff (tłumaczenie Robert Chrabąszcz)


teoria agencji, kodeks zarządzania firmą, społeczna odpowiedzialność biznesu, pracownicy, interesariusze


agency theory, corporate governance code, corporate social responsibility, employees, stakeholders


O koncepcji przedsiębiorstwa społecznego debatuje się niemal nieustannie, a nadal jest ona wysoce niedookreślona. W poniższym artykule zostały zaprezentowane jej ramy metateoretyczne, poprzez skonfrontowanie podejścia indywidualistycznego i komunitariańskiego. Przedstawiciele obu tradycji tworzą teorie społeczne, akcentujące albo konsensus (pogląd unitarystyczny), albo różnorodność (pogląd pluralistyczny). Rozmaite dyskursy na temat zarządzania przedsiębiorstwem odzwierciedlają powyższe założenia i kreują cztery odrębne podejścia wpływające na relacje między kapitałem a pracą. Odrzucając tradycyjny pogląd o przedsiębiorstwie prywatnym, przedsiębiorstwa społeczne przyjęły inne podejścia do rozwiązywania problemu wykluczenia społecznego, wywodzące się z odmiennych przekonań dotyczących celu działalności przedsiębiorstwa oraz istoty zarządzania. Ramy teoretyczne ukazują sposób rozumienia różnorodności w ramach tego sektora, akcentując wprowadzoną w Wielkiej Brytanii formułę działalności firmy społecznej, tzw. Przedsiębiorstwo Interesu Społecznego – Community Interest Company (CIC).


Concepts of social enterprise have been debated repeatedly, and continue to cause confusion. In this paper, a meta-theoretical framework is developed through discussion of individualist and communitarian philosophy. Philosophers from both traditions build social theories that emphasise either consensus (a unitarist outlook) or diversity (a pluralist outlook). The various discourses in corporate governance reflect these assumptions and create four distinct approaches that impact on the relationship between capital and labour. In rejecting the traditional discourse of private enterprise, social enterprises have adopted other approaches to tackle social exclusion, each derived from different underlying beliefs about the purpose of enterprise and the nature of governance. The theoretical framework offers a way to understand the diversity found within the sector, including the newly constituted Community Interest Company (CIC).


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